Obtenez des euros en lisant des mails, en visitant nos partenaires, en participant à des jeux concours et aux bons plans du web !
Inscrivez vous maintenant !

transaction

Electronic trade

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or e-comm, is the purchase and sale of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce is based on technologies such as electronic funds transfer, management of the supply chain, Internet marketing, processing online transactions, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least one point in the transaction lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as email, mobile devices and phones as well.  Electronic commerce is generally considered the aspect of sales of e-business. It also consists of data exchange to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of commercial transactions. E-commerce can be divided into:  E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"  The collection and use of demographic data through contacts  Web-based Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), exchange business-to-business data  E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters)  Business -to-business buying and selling  Transaction security commercialese.
History
The early development
Originally, electronic commerce has been identified as the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology like Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFT). They were both introduced in the 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, cash machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. Another form of e-commerce system was the airline reservation characterized by Sabre in the USA and the UK Travicom.
In early 1990, e-commerce include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehouses In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web browser and WorldWideWeb transformed network degree in telecommunications communications system worldwide everyday everyman called Internet / www. Commercial enterprise on the Internet is strictly prohibited by the NSF until 1995. [1] Although the Internet became popular worldwide around 1994 with the adoption of the Mosaic Web browser, it took about five years to introduce security protocols (ie SSL enabled Netscape Navigator 1.0 at the end of 1994) and DSL allowing continuous connection to the Internet. At the end of 2000, many European and American business enterprises have offered their services through the World Wide Web. Since then, people began to associate a word "commerce" with the opportunity to purchase merchandise through the Internet using secure protocols and electronic payment services. Chronology
The timing of e-commerce growth is shown below.
 1979: Michael Aldrich invented online purchases [2]  1981: Thomson Holidays, the UK is the leading B2B online purchases [citation needed]  1982: Minitel was introduced in the country France by France Telecom and used for order online.  1984: Gateshead SIS / Tesco is the first B2C online shopping and Ms. Snowball, 72, is the first time home buyer online [3]  1984: In April 1984, CompuServe Electronic Mall launches in the U.S. and Canada. This is the first comprehensive e-commerce. [4]  1985: Nissan sells cars in the UK and finance with credit check online to customers from dealers' lots [. Citation needed]  1987: swreg begins to provide software and shareware authors means to sell their products online through an electronic merchant account. [Citation needed]  1990: Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer. [5]  1992: Terry Brownell introduces the first fully graphical, iconic sailed Bulletin Board System purchases online using RoboBOARD / FX.  1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla. Pizza Hut offers online ordering on its Web page. The first online bank opens. Attempts to offer flower delivery and magazine subscriptions online. Adult materials also become commercially available, as do cars and motorcycles. Netscape 1.0 is introduced in late 1994 SSL encryption that made transactions secure.  1995: Thursday, April 27, 1995, buying a book of Paul Stanfield, product manager for CompuServe UK, WH Smith shop 's in the center
CompuServe UK Shopping is the UK's first national online service purchase transaction secure. The sales department featured at the launch of WH Smith, Tesco, Virgin / Our Price, Great Universal Stores / GUS, Interflora, Dixons Retail, time spent, PC World (retailer) and innovations. [6]  1995: Jeff Bezos launches Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24 hours, the only Internet radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio beginning of broadcasting. Dell and Cisco begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions. eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb.  1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.  1998: Alibaba Group is established in China.  1999: Business.com sold for U.S. $ 7.5 million to eCompanies, which was bought in 1997 for U.S. $ 149 000. Peer-to-peer file sharing software Napster launches. ATG Stores Launches selling decorative items for the home online.  2000: The dot-com bust.  2001: Alibaba.com achieved profitability in December 2001.  2002: eBay acquires PayPal for $ 1.5 billion. [7] Niche retail companies Wayfair and NetShops are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains, rather than a central portal.  2003: Amazon.com posts first annual profit.  2004: DHgate.com., China's first online platform for B2B transactions, is established, forcing other B2B sites to move away from the "yellow pages" model [8]  2005: Yuval Tal based Payoneer - a secure online payment distribution  2007: Business.com acquired by RH Donnelley for $ 345 million. [9]  2009: Zappos.com acquired by Amazon.com for $ 928 million. [10] The convergence of retail sale operator RueLaLa.com private site, acquired by GSI Commerce for $ 180 million, plus up to $ 170 million earn-out payments based on performance up to 2012 . [11]  2010: Groupon rejects an offer would be $ 6 billion from Google. Instead, the group purchasing site plans to proceed with an IPO in mid-2011. [12]  2011: Quidsi.com, parent company of Diapers.com, acquired by Amazon.com. for $ 500 million in cash and $ 45 million of debt and other obligations [13] GSI Commerce, a company specializing in the creation, development and management of online shopping sites for businesses of bricks and mortar , acquired by eBay for $ 2.4 billion. [14]  2012: U.S. eCommerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach $ 226 billion, an increase of 12 percent in 2011
Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:
 The document automation in the supply chain and logistics  National and international payment systems  The Enterprise Content Management   Purchasing Group Automated assistants online Instant messaging    The Newsgroups online shopping and order tracking  Online banking   Office Suites Online Shopping Cart Software   Teleconference Electronic tickets
Government regulation CAS U.S.A
United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of email marketing, online advertising and private consumption. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and not misleading. [16] With its authority under section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, there including promises about the security of personal information of consumers. [17] As a result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC. The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which came into law in 2008, amends the Controlled Substances Act to address online pharmacies. [18] Internationally, it is the Consumer Protection and International Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of business organizations of fair government clients. The aim has been declared as ways of cooperation on the fight against consumer issues related to cross-border transactions of goods and services, and help ensure the exchange of information between the participants for their mutual benefit and understanding. From there came econsumer, at the initiative of ICPEN since April 2001. www.econsumer.gov is a portal for information on complaints relating to online transactions and related services with foreign companies.
It is also Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free trade and investment. APEC has a group e-commerce Stearing and work on our privacy practices common throughout the APEC region. In Australia, trade is covered by the Australian guidelines for electronic commerce, [19] and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission [20] regulates and offers advice on how to deal with online businesses, [21] and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong. . [22] As Australian e-commerce site of the Government [23] provides information on electronic commerce in Australia.
Forms
Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce. At the institutional level, large enterprises and financial institutions use the Internet to exchange financial data to facilitate national and international affairs. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce.
Global trends
Business models around the world also continue to change radically with the advent of e-commerce and this change is not only limited to the United States. Other countries are also contributing to the growth of electronic commerce. For example, the UK has the largest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita, even higher than the U.S.. The Internet economy in the UK is likely to grow by 10% between 2010 to 2015. This led to the changing dynamics of the advertising industry [24] Among the emerging economies, China e-commerce presence continues to grow. With 384 million Internet users, sales of China online shopping has increased to $ 36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the level confidence improved for buyers. Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online. [25] eCommerce is also expanding across the Middle East. After recording the fastest growth in the world in Internet use between 2000 and 2009, the region is now home to over 60 million Internet users. Retail, travel and games are segments of the region eCommerce high level, despite difficulties such as lack of region-wide legal frameworks and logistical problems in cross-border transport. [26] E-Commerce has become an important tool for businesses around the world and not only sell to customers but also to involve them. [27]
Impact on markets and retailers
Economists have speculated that electronic commerce should lead to intensified price competition, because it increases the ability of consumers to gather information about products and prices. Research by four economists at the University of Chicago found that the growth of online shopping has also affected the structure of the industry in two areas that have experienced significant growth in e-commerce, libraries and agencies travel. Generally, large companies have increased at the expense of smaller, because they are able to use economies of scale and offer lower prices. The only exception to this trend was the smallest category of same bookseller, shops, lawyers [28] with one to four employees, who seem to have bucked the trend. [29]
Distribution channels
E-commerce has become increasingly important that companies have adopted Pure-Click and brick and click on the canal systems. We can distinguish pure click and brick and click channel system adopted by companies.  Pure-click companies are those that have launched a website without the previous existence as a business. It is imperative that these companies should establish and operate their ecommerce sites very carefully. Customer service is of paramount importance.  Businesses brick and Click are those existing businesses that have added an online site for electronic commerce. Initially, businesses and brick were skeptical or not Click to add an online e-commerce channel, lest the sale of their products could cause conflicts with their channels off-line retailers, agents, or their own stores . However, they eventually added to their portfolio Internet distribution channel after seeing how many cases of their online competitors were generating.

Electronic cmmerce

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or e-comm, is the purchase and sale of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce is based on technologies such as electronic funds transfer, management of the supply chain, Internet marketing, processing online transactions, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least one point in the transaction lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as email, mobile devices and phones as well.  Electronic commerce is generally considered the aspect of sales of e-business. It also consists of data exchange to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of commercial transactions. E-commerce can be divided into:  E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"  The collection and use of demographic data through contacts  Web-based Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), exchange business-to-business data  E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters)  Business -to-business buying and selling  Transaction security commercialese
History
The early development
Originally, electronic commerce has been identified as the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology like Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFT). They were both introduced in the 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, cash machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. Another form of e-commerce system was the airline reservation characterized by Sabre in the USA and the UK Travicom.
In early 1990, e-commerce include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehouses In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web browser and WorldWideWeb transformed network degree in telecommunications communications system worldwide everyday everyman called Internet / www. Commercial enterprise on the Internet is strictly prohibited by the NSF until 1995. [1] Although the Internet became popular worldwide around 1994 with the adoption of the Mosaic Web browser, it took about five years to introduce security protocols (ie SSL enabled Netscape Navigator 1.0 at the end of 1994) and DSL allowing continuous connection to the Internet. At the end of 2000, many European and American business enterprises have offered their services through the World Wide Web. Since then, people began to associate a word "commerce" with the opportunity to purchase merchandise through the Internet using secure protocols and electronic payment services. Chronology
The timing of e-commerce growth is shown below.
 1979: Michael Aldrich invented online purchases [2]  1981: Thomson Holidays, the UK is the leading B2B online purchases [citation needed]  1982: Minitel was introduced in the country France by France Telecom and used for order online.  1984: Gateshead SIS / Tesco is the first B2C online shopping and Ms. Snowball, 72, is the first time home buyer online [3]  1984: In April 1984, CompuServe Electronic Mall launches in the U.S. and Canada. This is the first comprehensive e-commerce. [4]  1985: Nissan sells cars in the UK and finance with credit check online to customers from dealers' lots [. Citation needed]  1987: swreg begins to provide software and shareware authors means to sell their products online through an electronic merchant account. [Citation needed]  1990: Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer. [5]  1992: Terry Brownell introduces the first fully graphical, iconic sailed Bulletin Board System purchases online using RoboBOARD / FX.  1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla. Pizza Hut offers online ordering on its Web page. The first online bank opens. Attempts to offer flower delivery and magazine subscriptions online. Adult materials also become commercially available, as do cars and motorcycles. Netscape 1.0 is introduced in late 1994 SSL encryption that made transactions secure.  1995: Thursday, April 27, 1995, buying a book of Paul Stanfield, product manager for CompuServe UK, WH Smith shop 's in the center
CompuServe UK Shopping is the UK's first national online service purchase transaction secure. The sales department featured at the launch of WH Smith, Tesco, Virgin / Our Price, Great Universal Stores / GUS, Interflora, Dixons Retail, time spent, PC World (retailer) and innovations. [6]  1995: Jeff Bezos launches Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24 hours, the only Internet radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio beginning of broadcasting. Dell and Cisco begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions. eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb.  1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.  1998: Alibaba Group is established in China.  1999: Business.com sold for U.S. $ 7.5 million to eCompanies, which was bought in 1997 for U.S. $ 149 000. Peer-to-peer file sharing software Napster launches. ATG Stores Launches selling decorative items for the home online.  2000: The dot-com bust.  2001: Alibaba.com achieved profitability in December 2001.  2002: eBay acquires PayPal for $ 1.5 billion. [7] Niche retail companies Wayfair and NetShops are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains, rather than a central portal.  2003: Amazon.com posts first annual profit.  2004: DHgate.com., China's first online platform for B2B transactions, is established, forcing other B2B sites to move away from the "yellow pages" model [8]  2005: Yuval Tal based Payoneer - a secure online payment distribution  2007: Business.com acquired by RH Donnelley for $ 345 million. [9]  2009: Zappos.com acquired by Amazon.com for $ 928 million. [10] The convergence of retail sale operator RueLaLa.com private site, acquired by GSI Commerce for $ 180 million, plus up to $ 170 million earn-out payments based on performance up to 2012 . [11]  2010: Groupon rejects an offer would be $ 6 billion from Google. Instead, the group purchasing site plans to proceed with an IPO in mid-2011. [12]  2011: Quidsi.com, parent company of Diapers.com, acquired by Amazon.com. for $ 500 million in cash and $ 45 million of debt and other obligations [13] GSI Commerce, a company specializing in the creation, development and management of online shopping sites for businesses of bricks and mortar , acquired by eBay for $ 2.4 billion. [14]  2012: U.S. eCommerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach $ 226 billion, an increase of 12 percent in 2011
Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:
 The document automation in the supply chain and logistics  National and international payment systems  The Enterprise Content Management   Purchasing Group Automated assistants online Instant messaging    The Newsgroups online shopping and order tracking  Online banking   Office Suites Online Shopping Cart Software   Teleconference Electronic tickets
Government regulation CAS U.S.A
United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of email marketing, online advertising and private consumption. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and not misleading. [16] With its authority under section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, there including promises about the security of personal information of consumers. [17] As a result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC. The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which came into law in 2008, amends the Controlled Substances Act to address online pharmacies. [18] Internationally, it is the Consumer Protection and International Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of business organizations of fair government clients. The aim has been declared as ways of cooperation on the fight against consumer issues related to cross-border transactions of goods and services, and help ensure the exchange of information between the participants for their mutual benefit and understanding. From there came econsumer, at the initiative of ICPEN since April 2001. www.econsumer.gov is a portal for information on complaints relating to online transactions and related services with foreign companies.
It is also Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free trade and investment. APEC has a group e-commerce Stearing and work on our privacy practices common throughout the APEC region. In Australia, trade is covered by the Australian guidelines for electronic commerce, [19] and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission [20] regulates and offers advice on how to deal with online businesses, [21] and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong. . [22] As Australian e-commerce site of the Government [23] provides information on electronic commerce in Australia.
Forms
Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce. At the institutional level, large enterprises and financial institutions use the Internet to exchange financial data to facilitate national and international affairs. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce.
Global trends
Business models around the world also continue to change radically with the advent of e-commerce and this change is not only limited to the United States. Other countries are also contributing to the growth of electronic commerce. For example, the UK has the largest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita, even higher than the U.S.. The Internet economy in the UK is likely to grow by 10% between 2010 to 2015. This led to the changing dynamics of the advertising industry [24] Among the emerging economies, China e-commerce presence continues to grow. With 384 million Internet users, sales of China online shopping has increased to $ 36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the level confidence improved for buyers. Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online. [25] eCommerce is also expanding across the Middle East. After recording the fastest growth in the world in Internet use between 2000 and 2009, the region is now home to over 60 million Internet users. Retail, travel and games are segments of the region eCommerce high level, despite difficulties such as lack of region-wide legal frameworks and logistical problems in cross-border transport. [26] E-Commerce has become an important tool for businesses around the world and not only sell to customers but also to involve them. [27]
Impact on markets and retailers
Economists have speculated that electronic commerce should lead to intensified price competition, because it increases the ability of consumers to gather information about products and prices. Research by four economists at the University of Chicago found that the growth of online shopping has also affected the structure of the industry in two areas that have experienced significant growth in e-commerce, libraries and agencies travel. Generally, large companies have increased at the expense of smaller, because they are able to use economies of scale and offer lower prices. The only exception to this trend was the smallest category of same bookseller, shops, lawyers [28] with one to four employees, who seem to have bucked the trend. [29]
Distribution channels
E-commerce has become increasingly important that companies have adopted Pure-Click and brick and click on the canal systems. We can distinguish pure click and brick and click channel system adopted by companies.  Pure-click companies are those that have launched a website without the previous existence as a business. It is imperative that these companies should establish and operate their ecommerce sites very carefully. Customer service is of paramount importance.  Businesses brick and Click are those existing businesses that have added an online site for electronic commerce. Initially, businesses and brick were skeptical or not Click to add an online e-commerce channel, lest the sale of their products could cause conflicts with their channels off-line retailers, agents, or their own stores . However, they eventually added to their portfolio Internet distribution channel after seeing how many cases of their online competitors were generating.
From Wikipedia,